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Training Circular' 


HEADQUARTERS, 
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
Washington 25, D.C., 10 April 1961 


No. 19-1 


OPERATION AND EMPLOYMENT, IRRITANT GAS 

DISPERSERS 



Page 

1 


Section 1. INTRODUCTION jL.& 

II. IRRITANT GAS DISPERSER, SKID-MOUNTED, 
GED, 5000 CFM, M2 


12-16 


4 

6 


III. IRRITANT GAS DISPERSER, PORTABLE, M3_ 17-21 

IV. IRRITANT GAS DISPERSER, HELICOPTER 


OR VEHICLE MOUNTED, M4 
Appendix. REFERENCES 


22-26 


10 

15 


Section I 
INTRODUCTION 


1. Purpose and scope, a. This training circular provides informa- 


tion and guidance for commanders, staff officers, ^and all personnel 


concerned with the utilization of irritant gas dispersers in the control 
and suppression of disturbances. It covers concepts and techniques 


for employment of the irritant gas dispersers and provides guidance 
for the training of operating personnel. 

b. Users of this circular are encouraged to submit recommended 
changes or comments to improve the circular. Comments should be 
keyed to the specific page, paragraph, and line of the text in which 
change is recommended. Reasons should be provided for each com- 
ment to insure understanding and complete evaluation. Comments 
should be forwarded direct to The Provost Marshal General, Depart- 
ment of the Army, Washington 25, D.C. 

c. The material presented herein is applicable to nuclear and non- 
nuclear warfare. 

2. Concept of employment. The irritant gas dispersers were 
developed to provide the commanders with a capability for dispersing 
irritant gases in sufficient quantities to provide effective area coverage 
under a variety of situations and weather conditions. They are nbt 
designed for the direct introduction of an irritant agent into barricaded 
buildings. Care must also he exercised in their employment in con- 
fined areas such as prisoner-of-war camps and against target areas 
with restricted avenues of escape. Normal usage envisions transport 


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of these dispersers by the individual, by %-ton or larger vehicles, or 
by helicopters. When transported on the ground, by individual or by 
vehicle, the dispersers may be directly integrated into the riot control 
troop formations or may be operated from a position in direct support 
thereof. Dispersers mounted in helicopters are used in close con- 
junction with the riot control troops and in direct implementation of 
the immediate plan of operations. The exact location of the aircraft, 
with respect to the troop formation, at the time of release of the 
irritant agents will be determined by current wind direction and 
velocity and in some instances by such physical obstacles as may 
place a restriction on the movements or positioning of the aircraft. 

3. Personnel, a. Although it is desirable that all unit personnel 
should have a knowledge of the operation and employment capabilities 
of the irritant gas dispersers, main reliance in this respect must be 
placed on specially selected and trained individuals. Such personnel 
should be chosen for initiative, ability to learn, and proven calmness 
when faced with large numbers of agitated people. 

b. Individuals designated as disperser operators and/or as team 
members should be well qualified in their primary MOS as members 
of military police or other units authorized a disperser, and thoroughly 
trained in riot control operations. Preferably they should have 
received special training in the use of chemical agents. 

4. Chemical agents, a. Irritant agents authorized for use in the 
irritant gas dispersers are CN 1 (micropul verized chloroacetophenone) , 
DM1 (micropulverized diphenylaminechloroarsine), CSX (micro- 
pulverized form of the crystalline agent arid silica aerogel), or a com- 
bination of any two of these agents. For training purposes, technical 
talc, Tl, is used. 

b. In selecting the chemical agent to use in a given situation, careful 
consideration must be given to the effects of each agent. The mob 
reactions to CNl, DMl, and a combination thereof are generally 
known. Their reactions to CSl are not generally known. CSl is 
effective in very small concentrations. The effects of CSl on the 
eyes and respiratory system are realized in seconds and last from 5 
to 10 minutes after the affected individual is exposed to fresh air. 
Generally, persons reacting to CSl are incapable of executing organ- 
ized, concerted actions and excessive exposure to CSl may render 
them helpless to vacate the area. 

5. Protective clothing. Ordinary field clothing worn with collar 
and cuffs buttoned and trouser legs tucked into boots, a protective 
mask, and rubber gloves provide adequate protection for personnel 
engaged in filling, operating, or transporting the dispersers. 


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6. Control. Commands are given to the disperser operators by 
voice or arm and hand signals. Radio communications will normally 
be required between the troop commander and the commissioned or 
noncommissioned officer in immediate command of the riot control 
formation or of the disperser operators. 

7. Maintenance. To assure the mechanical reliability of the dis- 
persers, it is necessary that certain specific inspections and maintenance 
services he performed systematically each time that they are used and 
that additional services he performed periodically. Because of the 
corrosive effects of some of the irritant agents to metal, they should not 
be allowed to remain on the disperser or on the vehicle or helicopter 
from which operated. Detailed maintenance, inspection, and repair 
instructions are contained in pertinent technical publications. See the 
appendix. 

8. Precautions. The irritant gas dispersers permit the release of a 
large quantity of an irritant agent within a very short period of time. 
Particular care must be exercised at all times, therefore, to assure that 
an excessive and possibly lethal or completely incapacitating concen- 
tration is not developed. In this regard it is essential that the average 
release rate be determined for each agent and disperser in terms of 
pounds of the agent expelled per second. The dispersers should not 
be used to introduce an irritant agent directly into a closed structure 
except in extreme emergency. 

9. Training objectives. Designated personnel are trained in -the 
operation, employment, and maintenance of the respective irritant 
gas dispersers. They must acquire knowledge and become proficient 
with respect to— 

а. The nomenclature and characteristics of the respective dis- 
persers and the irritant chemical agents. 

б. The effects of weather, terrain, and distance on the dissemination 
of the chemical agents. 

c. Methods of operating the dispersers. 

d. Techniques which will give greatest assurance of placing an 
effective concentration on the target area with a minimum concentra- 
tion on off-target areas. 

e. Maintenance of dispersers. 

j. Use, care, and inspection of protective clothing. 

g. Decontamination of equipment. 

h. Safety precautions. 


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10. Training. a . Methods oj instruction. Training will be con- 
ducted in accordance with the principles set forth in FM 21-5. Prac- 
tical application will be preceded by thorough preparatory instruction. 

b. Specific training . 

(1) Practical exercises should be conducted under varying 
weather conditions and differing riot control situations which 
will affect the deployment of the dispersers and dispersal 
techniques. Whenever possible training should be integrated 
with unit riot control training exercises. 

(2) Scheduled drills to test the readiness and operational effective- 
ness of the operating personnel and equipment should be 
conducted periodically. 

11. Standing operating procedure. SOP should be prepared for 
the guidance of all disperser operating personnel to include vehicle 
drivers and helicopter pilots. Included in the SOP should be specific 
individual duties and actions to be performed preparatory to, during, 
and after operation of the disperser. 

Section II 

IRRITANT GAS DISPERSER, SKID-MOUNTED, GED, 5000 

CFM, M2 

12. Description. The M2 disperser consists essentially of an an- 
nular-flow turbine blower powered by an air-cooled, 4-cycle, 8X- 
horsepower gasoline engine and a hopper that will hold 40 pounds of 
the powdered agent and deliver it into the air stream which exhausts 
through an 8-inch diameter stack that can be manually rotated in 
the direction of the target. The entire assembly is skid-mounted, 
weighs 500 pounds and is approximately 3 by 5 by 5% feet in size. 
The 40 pounds of agent filling may be dispersed in approximately 2 
minutes. 

13. Transport. Normal usage anticipates placement on a %-ton 
or larger vehicle (fig. 1) . 

14. Basis of issue. Two per zone of interior army ; two per United 
States Army, Europe; and two per United States Army, Far East. 

15. Employment. Generally, principles discussed in section IV and 
considerations pertinent to the employment of the M4 disperser when 
mounted on a vehicle are also applicable to the employment of this 
disperser. The comparative lack of maneuverability of this disperser, 
however, materially limits the effectiveness of its employment. 


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16. Operating team. a. Composition . Each team should consist 
of a team commander (commissioned officer), operator (noncommis- 
sioned officer), and an assistant operator. Inclusion of the vehicle 
driver as a regular member of the team is desirable but not mandatory. 



Figure 1 . M2 skid-mounted irritant gas disperser on 2}{-ton vehicle. 


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6. Duties. Duties and responsibilities of the operating team mem- 
bers for this disperser are essentially the same as those of the operating 
team for the M4 disperser. 


Section III 

IRRITANT GAS DISPERSER, PORTABLE, M3 

17. Description. The M3 disperser consists of two tanks, each of 
which will hold 7}i to 10 pounds of an irritant agent, depending on the 
type of agent used, a pressure tank assembly, a hose assembly, a 
pressure regulator, and an M9 portable irritant gas disperser gun. 
These components are mounted on a tubular steel frame back-pack 
carrier which provides easy one-man carry of the disperser. The 15 
to 20 pound capacity of the agent tanks, depending on the type of 
agent used, may be dispersed in approximately 25 seconds. The dis- 
perser including the agent filling weighs approximately 60 pounds. 
Also included is an M4 filling hopper for use in filling the two agent 
tanks. Two pairs of M3 toxicological agent protective rubber gloves 
for operator protection and necessary tool and service kits complete 
the M3 disperser assembly. 

18. Transport. Normal- usage envisions man-carrying of this dis- 
perser by an individual on foot (fig. 2) or mounted in a vehicle. 

19. Basis of issue. One per MP platoon of all MP units (except 
division MP units, and TOE's 19-^£7D, 19-237D, 19-252D, 19-256D, 



Figure 2. MS portable irritant gas disperser disseminating talc. 


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and 19-500D) when authorized by zone of interior army commanders 
or theater of operations commanders; two per U.S. disciplinary bar- 
racks and each branch thereof (TA 19-10); one per platoon of emer- 
gency forces (domestic and overseas) having riot control missions 
(TA) ; one per Chemical Corps CBR course, DPG; six per The Provost 
Marshal General's School (TA 19-2); and one per Chemical Corps 
School. One compressor, reciprocating, power-driven, 3 % CFM, 
AN-M4, is authorized for each unit authorized one or more dispersers. 

20. Employment, a . General. The effective use of this disperser is 
dependent upon a following or slightly quartering wind of a velocity 
not to exceed 20 m.p.h. Optimum wind velocity is 3 to 5 m.p.h. 
Normally, the use of this disperser should be backed up by other 
portable dispersers or by an M2 or M4 disperser inasmuch as re- 
pressurizing of the disperser requires the use of a compressor and 
thereby places the disperser out of action for a period of time, the 
length of which is dependent upon the location of the compressor and 
the efficiency of the personnel in reloading and repressurizing oper- 
ations. By reason of its compactness, portability, and low cost this 
disperser is well suited as a TOE item of equipment and provides the 
using units with an immediately available and very effective riot 
control weapon. 
b . Positioning. 

(1) Open area targets. The portable disperser operator may be 
positioned in advance of, as a part of, or immediately in the 
rear of, the riot control formation (fig. 3). Proximity to the 
mob and the role which the disperser is to play are the de- 
termining factors. If the decision has been made to disperse 
the irritant agent in advance of the close approach of the riot 
control formation to the mob, the disperser operator may be 
positioned as a part of or slightly in advance of the forma- 
tion. This position will permit the operator the greatest 
freedom in operating the disperser and will assure minimum 
of exposure by the troops. Freedom to move to firing posi- 
tions to the right or left of center may assist in the establish- 
ment of a more uniform cloud of the agent over the target or 
will permit, to a limited extent, coverage over selected por- 
tions of the target area. If the disperser is to be held in 
reserve status, the disperser operator should be positioned 
from one to several feet to the rear of the approximate center 
of the formation. From this position, the operator can 
quickly be deployed to the front of the riot control formation 
to disperse the irritant agent. 


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A 

A 



LEGEND: 

A. WIND DIRECTION. 

B. PLATOON LINE. 

C. MAN-CARRIED M3 DISPERSER SHOWING SEVERAL 
ALTERNATE FIRING POSITIONS. 

D. RESERVE POSITION. 

Figure 3 . Release positions for portable disperser operated by individual on foot. 

(2) Closed area targets. Introduction of an irritant agent into a 
closed area target, such as a prisoner-of-war compound or 
enclosure, will normally be effected from a position to the 
windward and exterior side of the perimeter fence. The riot 
control formation, on the other hand, should be located at 
or near the entrance to the compound or enclosure in 
readiness to enter at the appropriate moment and effect final 
submission and restore absolute control over all individuals 
within the affected area. When considered necessary to the 
submission of individuals barricaded in buildings within the 
closed area, hand grenades in limited numbers may be used 
to introduce the agent into the building. Such action should 


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be accompanied by immediate measures to effect forceable 
entrance into the building and removal of individuals there- 
from as suffocation can result from burning type grenades. 
Bursting type grenades can cause casualties to personnel 
within a 5 yard radius. 

c. Release point or line. The optimum distance for firing the 
disperser so as to produce a cloud which will envelop and provide an 
effective concentration over the largest portion of the target area 
is primarily dependent upon the wind velocity and the freedom of 
movement of the operator across the front of the target area. Gen- 
erally, the distance of the agent release point or line from the target 
area will range from a minimum of 50 feet to as far as several hundred 
feet depending on wind velocity. With increasing wind velocity, dis- 
semination of the powdered agent becomes more rapid and the distance 
between the target area and the point of release must be reduced ac- 
cordingly if an effective concentration is to be placed on the target. 

d. Concentration. Factors affecting the amount of a particular 
irritant agent required to establish an effective concentration in any 
given instance or situation are too varied to permit exact guidance. 
Basic to this very vital aspect of employing irritant agents, however, 
is a thorough understanding of the effectiveness of the agent used, an 
awareness of the amount released in a given time, a full appreciation 
of the makeup and determination of the mob, and close observation 
of the gas cloud movement over, and its immediate effect on, the mob. 
Too large a concentration may result in complete incapacitation, 
serious injuries, and deaths. Too small concentrations, particularly 
against organized and determined groups, may merely encourage 
greater violence. 

e. Release rate. The M9 portable irritant gas disperser gun permits 
effective control over the amount of the irritant agent released. 
Release of the agent may be effected in one continuous burst or in 
shorter hursts ranging from less than 1 second to several seconds in 
duration. Knowledge of the amount of the agent released per second 
is of vital importance in establishing effective but safe concentrations 
on the target area. The average release rate for talc released in 
5-second bursts and under an operating pressure of 70 p.s.i., as deter- 
mined by two tests with one M3 disperser, was 1.5 pounds per second. 
Using units are cautioned, however, to determine the particular release 
rate for each disperser which they operate, both for talc and for each of 
the irritant agents. 

21. Disperser operator. The portable disperser operator works 
under the immediate control and direction of the riot control formation 

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commander. Release of the irritant agent should be effected only 
upon direct order of the commander. If the riot control formation 
commander is not fully qualified in the characteristics and employ- 
ment of the irritant agents, a qualified officer should he designated to 
determine the appropriate time, place, and amount of agent to be 
released and to issue appropriate commands of execution to the operat- 
ing personnel. 

Section IV 

IRRITANT GAS DISPERSER, HELICOPTER OR VEHICLE 

MOUNTED, M4 

22. Description. The M4 disperser basically consists of a sealed 
hopper that will contain approximately 100 pounds of CSl or 120 
pounds of CNl or DMl, a pressure tank assembly, a hose assembly, 
and a pressure regulator. All of these components are supported on 
a tubular framework so that the complete assembly is approximately 
4 by 2% by 2 feet. An additional component, the M9 portable irritant 
gas disperser gun, is provided for use with the disperser when it is 
operated from a ground vehicle. The contents of the hopper, when 
filled, may be dispersed in approximately 2 minutes. The disperser, 
including the agent filling, weighs 280 pounds. 

23. Transport. The disperser may he mounted on the H19, H34, 
or HU-1 A helicopters or a %-bon. (fig. 4) or larger vehicle. 



Figure 4- MJf. irritant gas disperser operated from }{-ton vehicle. 


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24. Basis of issue. Four per zone of interior army; four per major 
oversea command; two per U.S. Army Alaska; two per Military Dis- 
trict of Washington; two per The Provost Marshal General's School 
(TA 19-2); one per Chemical Corps School; and one per Chemical 
Corps CBR Course, DPG. One compressor, reciprocating, power- 
driven, 3 J4 CFM, AN-M4, is authorized for each unit to which an M4 
irritant gas disperser is allocated. 

25. Employment, a. General. This disperser provides the com- 
mander with an air-to-ground dispersal capability when mounted in 
a helicopter. It is equally suited to mounting in a %-ton or larger 
vehicle. Situations best suited to the employment of this disperser 
include large scale and determined mob actions requiring dis- 
semination of large quantities of the irritant agent, and conditions 
under which advantage cannot be taken of a following wind from a 
ground location. 

6 . Positioning. When a helicopter is used, release of the irritant 
agent may be effected from either a hovering position over or to the 
windward side of the target area or along a line over or to the windward 
side of the target. When mounted on a vehicle and employed against 
open area targets, operation of the disperser should normally be 
effected from positions slightly in advance or as a part of the riot control 
formation (fig. 5). When employed against closed area targets as 
discussed in paragraph 206(2), the positioning of the disperser is 
effected independently of the riot control formation. 

e. Release point or line. 

(1) Helicopter mounted. Kelease of the irritant agent sufficiently 
in advance of the riot control formation to permit dissipation 
of the agent concentration in the target area shortly prior 
to the arrival of the troop formation is desirable. The actual 
distance from and location of the release point or line with 
respect to the target area are determined by the wind 
velocity and direction and by such physical obstacles as 
may place a restriction on the movements of the helicopter. 
Initi i, release of the irritant agent from a hovering position 
directly over the target area should be effected in short bursts 
of 3 to 5 seconds duration. Close observation of the reactions 
of the mob will permit determination of the required number 
and length of additional bursts. When a hovering position 
to the windward side of the target is assumed, the same 
procedure should be followed except that release of the 
agent may be effected in bursts of slightly longer duration. 
When dispersed along a release line, dispersal should begin 


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in sufficient time to assure cloud coverage over the side of 
the target area being approached and should be discontinued 
shortly prior to reaching the far side of the target area to 
avoid excessive dissemination over other than the target 
area. The exact moment for beginning and for discontinuing 
release of the agent will be governed by the rate of speed at 
which the helicopter is moving, and by the wind velocity and 
direction. 


A 

A 


RELEASE LINE 


_* 0 =.-= 0 ! 


LP.j 


LP.J 


Lcj 


P 


LEGEND: 

A. WIND DIRECTION. 

B. PLATOON LINE. 

C. VEHICLE MOUNTED M4 DISPERSER SHOWING 
SEVERAL ALTERNATE FIRING POSITIONS . 

D. RESERVE POSITION. 

Figure 5. Release positions for M4 disperser operated from a vehicle. 


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(2) Vehicle mounted . Release of the agent may be effected from 
one or more stationary ground positions or along a line to the 
windward side of the target area. 'When released from a 
stationary point, the agent should be discharged in inter- 
mittent bursts while the gun muzzle is swung through an 
approximate 160° arc to the front. When dispersed along a 
line, continuous or semicontinuous release may be effected 
depending upon the irritant agent used, rate of movement, 
and wind factors. 

d. Concentratation. The large amount of the irritant agent con- 
tained in this disperser and the rapidity with which it can be released 
necessitates particular alertness on the part of the operator and re- 
sponsible commanders to assure that the target area is not covered 
with an incapacitating concentration. This is particularly true under 
quiet wind conditions and when the target area is partially enclosed by 
buildings. Also it should be remembered that 1 pound of CN1 is the 
equivalent of 10 bursting-type ON grenades, and further that 120 
pounds of CNl (equivalent of 1,200 bursting-type CN grenades) can 
be dispersed in 2 minutes or less with this disperser. 

e. Release rate. When operated from a vehicle, the M9 portable 
irritant gas disperser gun is also used with the M4 disperser and 
permits the same close control over the amounts of the agent released. 
The average release rate of talc, released in 5-second bursts and under 
an operating pressure of 45 p.s.i., for one M4 disperser tested was 
found to be 1.2 pounds per second. 

26. Operating Team. a. Composition. Each team should consist 
of a team commander (commissioned officer), operator (noncommis- 
sioned officer), and assistant operator. Inclusion of the vehicle driver 
or helicopter pilot as regular members of the team is desirable but 
not mandatory. 

b. Duties. 

(1) Commander. Supervises operation, employment, and mainte- 
nance of the IGD M4. Reconnoiters area to he covered by 
the dispersed agent and prepares plans for employment. 
Supervises movement of equipment to site of operation and 
assigns personnel to specific jobs. Responsible for selection 
of release point or line and exercises direct control over 
amount of irritant agent released. Observes and evaluates 
dispersed agent to assure proper coverage and concentration 
without interference to mission of troops supported. In- 
structs or demonstrates operating techniques and procedures. 
Supervises and conducts team training. Supervises the 


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the preparation of records and reports related to the mainte- 
nance of the disperser's operations. 

(2) Operator and assistant operator. Responsible for the operation 
and maintenance of the disperser. Operate and make ad- 
justments to the disperser to obtain optimum quality and 
quantity of chemical dispersion. Inspect and test-operate 
defective equipment or components to determine types and 
causes of malfunction, extent of repairs needed, and quality 
of repair work performed. Clean and make minor adjust- 
ments or replace defective parts using common hand tools. 
Make final adjustments to equipment to obtain optimum 
operation. Estimate requirements for maintenance supplies* 


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FM 3-5 

FM 19—15 
FM 21-5 
FM 21-40 

FM 21-41 

FM 21-48 

FM 23-30 
TM 3-220 
TM 3-300 
TM 3-304 

TM 3-1040-20 1-20P 


TM 3-280 5-200-20P 


TM 3-522-15 
TM 3-1040-201-12 


TM 3-1040-201-35 


TM 3-1 040-20 1-35P 


TM 3—1 04 0—2 14-20P 

TM 3-1 040-2 15-20P 

TAGO S324B 


Appendix 

REFERENCES 

Tactics and Techniques of Chemical, Biologi- 
cal, and Radiological (GBR) Warfare. 

Civil Disturbances and Disasters. 

Military Training. 

Small Unit Procedures in Chemical, Biologi- 
cal, and Nuclear Warfare. 

Soldier's Handbook for Nuclear, Biological, 
and Chemical Warfare. 

Training Exercises and Integrated Training in 
Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Warfare, 

Grenades and Pyrotechnics. 

D econtamination . 

Ground Chemical Munitions. 

Protective Clothing and Accessories. 

Organizational Maintenance Repair Parts and 
Special Tool Lists : Irritant Gas Disperser, 
Skid-Mounted, GED, 5000 CFM, M2 
(FSN 1040-699-5256). 

Organizational Repair Parts and Special Tool 
Lists: Engine, Gasoline, 2-Cylinder 8.5 HP 
(FSN 2805-516-5949). 

Mask, Protective, Field, M9, and Mask, 
Protective, Field, M9A1, 

Operator and Organizational Maintenance: 
Irritant Gas Disperser, Skid-Mounted, 
GED, 5000 CFM, M2. 

Field and Depot Maintenance: Irritant Gas 
Disperser, Skid-Mounted, GED, 5000 
CFM, M2. 

Field and Depot Maintenance: Repair Parts 
Allowances for Irritant Gas Disperser, 
Skid-Mounted, GED, 5000 CFM, M2 (FSN 
1040-699-5256). 

Organizational Maintenance Repair Parts and 
Special Tool Lists: Irritant Gas Disperser, 
Portable, M3 (FSN 1040-711-8296). 

Organizational Maintenance Repair Parts and 
Special Tool Lists: Irritant Gas Disperser, 
Helicopter or Vehicle Mounted, M4 (FSN 
1040-769-9775). 


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TM 3-2805-200-12 

TM 3-2805-200-35 

TM 3— 2805-200— 35P 

TM 3—1240-202-15 

TC 3-9 


Operator’s and Organizational Maintenance: 
Engine, Gasoline, 2-Cylinder, 8.5 HP 
(ONAN Model ACK-F/352C). 

Field and Depot Maintenance : Engine, Gaso- 
line, 2-Cylinder, 8.5 HP (ONAN Model 
ACK-F/352C). 

Repair Parts and Special Tool List: 
Engine, Gasoline, 2-Cylinder (FSN 2805- 
516-5949). 

Operation and Organizational Field and 
Depot Maintenance: Mask, Protective, 
Field, M17. 

Use of Agent CS in Training and Riot Control. 


By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 


G. H. DECKER, 
General , United States Army , 
Official : Chief of Staff. 

R. V. LEE, 

Major General , United States Army , 

The Adjutant General. 


Distribution: 

Active Army , NG, and USAR: To be distributed in accordance with 1?A 
Form 12-4 requirements for Training Circulars. 


TAGO 5324 B 


U.S GOVERNMENT PRINTING CFFTCEi